efence mechanisms or defense mechanisms are derived from the Freudian psychoanalytic theory. They are described to be psychological strategies brought into play by various entities to cope with reality and to maintain self-image. Healthy persons normally use different defences throughout life. An ego defence mechanism becomes pathological only when its persistent use leads to maladaptive behavior such that the physical and/or mental health of the individual is Mechanic Bracknell adversely affected. The purpose of the Ego Defence Mechanisms is to protect the mind/self/ego from anxiety, social sanctions or to provide a refuge from a situation with which one cannot currently cope (Defence Mechanism, 2005).
There are numerous defined defence mechanisms. In order to organize and classify them, they are graded into the following:
Level 1: The mechanisms on this level, when predominating, almost always are severely pathological. These three defences, in conjunction, permit one to effectively rearrange external experiences to eliminate the need to cope with reality. The pathological users of these mechanisms frequently appear crazy or insane to others. These are the "psychotic" defences, common in overt psychosis. However, they are found in dreams and throughout childhood as healthy mechanisms. Include: Denial and distortion
Level 2: The mechanisms on this level, when predominating, almost always are severely pathological. These three defences, in conjunction, permit one to effectively rearrange external experiences to eliminate the need to cope with reality. The pathological users of these mechanisms frequently appear crazy or insane to others. These are the "psychotic" defences, common in overt psychosis. However, they are found in dreams and throughout childhood as healthy mechanisms. Include: Fantasy, Projection, Idealization
Level 3: These mechanisms are considered neurotic, but fairly common in adults. Such defences have short-term advantages in coping, but can often cause long-term problems in relationships, work and in enjoying life when used as one's primary style of coping with the world. Include: Displacement, Dissociation, Isolation, Rationalization
Level 4: These are commonly found among emotionally healthy adults and are considered the most mature, even though many have their origins in the immature level. However, these have been adapted through the years so as to optimize success in life and relationships. The use of these defences enhances user pleasure and feelings of mastery. These defences help the users to integrate conflicting emotions and thoughts while still remaining effective. Persons who use these mechanisms are viewed as having virtues. Include: Altruism, Humor, Suppression, Sublimation(Defence Mechanism, 2005).
The discussion on defence mechanisms had to be one of my favorite. It delves with a subject that most of us know about and experience but it has never before been explained to me in such a way. After the discussion on this subject, I have gained a better understanding and appreciation of the way other people act, especially how I act. One of the defence mechanisms that I could really relate to was displacement.
Displacement is defined as an unconscious defense mechanism whereby the mind redirects
effects from an object felt to be dangerous or unacceptable to an object felt to be safe or acceptable. For instance, some people punch cushions when they are angry at friends; a college student may snap at his or her roommate when upset about an exam grade. Displacement operates the mind unconsciously and involves emotions, ideas, or wishes being transferred from their original object to a more acceptable substitute. It is most often used to allay anxiety (Displacement (Psychology), 2004).
I think most of us, at one point in time, in retrospect, can be guilty of displacement. Since displacement is said to be unconscious, even though we know that it is not proper, we cannot stop ourselves from displacing whatever emotions we have felt that time. I can recount one too many times that I have snapped at a friend because I was angry at a family member of mine. Or sometimes, I can recount snapping at my family because of the stress that I was experiencing at school.
This may not be a defence mechanism, but applying the concept of displacement, I theorize that the process may not necessarily be confined to negative feelings. A person can also pass on positive feelings as well. Like if I was in a good mood, I often share it with Mechanic Bracknell the people I deal with.
Taking this learned concept in this light, we can have a better appreciation of what type of emotion we pass on to others during our interaction with them. We have to be careful with what we say and what we do because it can affect others as well in such a way that it can have chain reactions. A bad vibe passed on to one may not stop with that person, but it can also be passed on to others as well such that a negative atmosphere is created. Knowing this concept may not stop us from actually doing it, but having this information, and having a better understanding of ourselves can lead us to learn how to control it and promote a positive atmosphere.